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Original & Edited by Claudette Award

WEEK 1 ~ Coffee


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Week 2 ~ The Space Shuttle

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Information about Atlantis


WEEK 3 ~ Pagoda


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Information about Pagodas

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WEEK 4 ~ Motor Car

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Week 4 - Motor Car

Information on the First Automobiles



WEEK 5 ~


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Conch (pronounced 'konk') is a common name for certain large marine snails. They are gastropod mollusks, the most commercially important of which are in the family Strombidae. The specific species we are concerned with here is the queen, or pink-lipped conch, Strombus gigas, which can be found in warm waters of the Atlantic and the Caribbean from Florida to Brazil. Their shells have overlapping whorls with a bright colored pink lip, which can reach a length of 12 to 13 inches. The operculum, which is the covering of the shell opening, is a claw like structure which the conch uses to dig into the sand and push itself along the bottom. They are plant eaters and can live as long as 25 years.

It is illegal to take live conch in U.S. waters, where they are an endangered species, so most conch now comes from the various Caribbean islands, including the Bahamas (where it is sometimes called 'hurricane ham'). However, they are becoming scarce even in those waters.
Note: If you are ever in Florida do not pronounce the word conch sounding the 'ch' - be sure to pronounce it 'konk'.

Week 6 ~French Horn




What is a French Horn?

The Orchestral horn, or French Horn, was developed about 1650 in France and is a large version of the smaller crescent-shaped horns that had been redesigned with circularly coiled tubing. The French hunting horn, which entered the orchestra in the early 1700s, produced about 12 tones of the natural harmonic series. The horn gained greater flexibility about 1750 with the invention of the technique called hand-stopping. Hand-stopping involves placing a hand in the bell of the horn to alter the pitch of the natural notes by as much as a whole tone. Despite this advance, cumbersome lengths of tubing, called crooks, were necessary for playing in many keys.

The invention of valves in the early 19th century revolutionized the horn, allowing the player to alter the length of the tubing by the motion of a finger. A horn in the key F with 3 valves can produce a chromatic scale over 3 octaves, running upward from the B below the bass clef. Modern players use hand-stopping to affect intonation and tone colour.

The modern F horn has 3 valves, circular coils of narrow tubing flaring at the one end to a wide bell, and a funnel-shaped mouthpiece that accounts for the horn's soft, mellow tone. The double horn in F and Bb, introduced about 1900, is rapidly superseding the F horn. Equipped with an extra valve to switch to the Bb tubing, it offers certain technical advantages. Most modern orchestras include four horns.


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